Acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS)
AIDS is an acronym for acquired immune deficiency syndrome .AIDS is caused by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and is at the most advanced stage of HIV infection.HIV is transmitted through contact with infected blood or sexual fluids, such as liquids. In the course of time, the virus attacks the immune system with a focus on special cells, CD4 cells called “that protect the body against infections and cancers most are, and the number of these cells begin to drop.” Finally the CD4 cells collapse to a critical value or the immune system weakened so much that he can no longer fight against certain types of cancer and infections. At this advanced stage of HIV infection, AIDS is called.
HIV is a virus that is very small, containing the ribonucleic acid (RNA) as its genetic material. If infected HIV cells of animals, he uses a special enzyme reverse transcriptase(transcription) convert its RNA into DNA. (Viruses that apply alter transcriptase are sometimes referred to as “Retroviruses”.) If HIV reproduces itself, is prone to small defects or genetic mutations with viruses, which differ slightly from each other. Create this ability, slight variations can HIV on the immune system of the body, primarily to lifelong infection leads to escape and made it difficult for an effective vaccine. The mutations can also HIV resistant to anti-retro viral drugs.
Signs and Symptoms
AIDS is the advanced stage of HIV infection. Because the immune system CD4 cells have been largely affected, people with AIDS usually develop symptoms and signs of unusual infections or cancers. When a person with HIV infection is one of these infections or cancer receives, is referred to as a “condition of the definition of AIDS”. Examples of AIDS-defining conditions are listed in table 1. Significant, unexplained weight loss is also a prerequisite for the definition of AIDS. As more common diseases such as cancer or other viral diseases such as Infectious Mononucleosis can also fatigue and weight loss, it is sometimes easy for a doctor, to overlook the possibility of HIV/AIDS. It is possible that the people without AIDS from these States, especially the most common infections such as tuberculosis.
People with AIDS can develop symptoms of Pneumocystis Jiroveci pneumonia, that rarely occurs in people with normal immune systems. They are also rather get a pneumonia caused by common bacteria. TB is worldwide one of the most common infections associated with AIDS. In addition, people with AIDS can develop cramps, weakness or mental changes due to toxoplasmosis, a parasite that infects the brain. Neurological symptoms can also by meningitis caused by the fungus of Cryptococcus. Complaints swallow painful candidacies can be caused by a yeast infection of the esophagus called. To take advantage of these infections, weakened immune system, they are called “opportunistic infections”.
The weakening of the immune system, can lead to unusual cancers such as Kaposi’s Sarcoma associated with HIV infection. Kaposi’s Sarcoma develops as raised patches on the skin that are red, Brown, or purple. Kaposi’s Sarcoma can spread to your mouth, intestinal or respiratory system. Also Lymphoma (a type of cancer in the white blood cells) can be associated with AIDS.HIV itself can cause symptoms in people with AIDS. Some people experience unrelenting fatigue and weight loss, known as “wasting syndrome.” Others may develop called confusion or drowsiness due to a brain infection with HIV, HIV encephalopathy. The wasting syndrome and HIV encephalopathy are AIDS-defining illnesses.
How is AIDS diagnosed?
To diagnose AIDS, the doctor (1) have a positive test for HIV (test “HIV”) and (2)evidence of an AIDS-defining condition or severely depleted CD4 cells confirmed.The HIV test is a two-stage process with a screening test and a confirmatory test. The first step is normally a screening test for antibodies against HIV looks. The samples of blood from a vein or a finger-stick, an oral swab or urine sample test. Results can be back in minutes (rapid tests) or takes several days, depending on the method used. If the HIV screening test is positive, the results be confirmed test called a specific Western blot test or indirect immune fluorescence. A Western blot test detects antibodies to specific components of the virus. The confirmation test is necessary, and occasionally because of the screening test is inaccurate in people, not HIV positive be. Another option for the diagnosis of HIV infection is a specific test to detect viral particles in the blood. These tests detect viral antigen, DNA, or RNA. However, these tests are most commonly used to guide treatment, and not to the diagnosis.Only with HIV do not mean that a person AIDS has. AIDS is the advanced stage of the HIV infection and requires that the person has information on a damaged immune system. This evidence comes from one or more of the following:
- The existence of the State of the AIDS definition
- Measurement of CD4 cells in the body and show that there are less than 200 cells per milliliter of blood
- A laboratory result shows that less than 14% of lymphocytes CD4 cells
- It is significant to recall that a diagnosis of AIDS HIV test requires confirmed positive.
What is the treatment of HIV/AIDS?
An antiretroviral drug targets several different viruses. When used in combination with the others, they are very effective in suppressing the virus. It is important to note that there is no cure for HIV. Art suppresses only the reproduction of the virus and prevents or slows the disease AIDS ahead. The most guidelines currently recommend that all people with HIV infected, who are willing to take drugs should have started immediately after the infection is diagnosed. This slows down or prevents the progression of the disease, improves the general health of an infected person and makes it less likely to transmit the virus to their partners.
There are six main categories of antiretroviral drugs: nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs) (1), (2) non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase (NNRTI), protease inhibitors (PIs) (3), (4) Fusion Inhibitors (input), integrate inhibitors (5) and (6) CCR5 antagonist. These drugs, used in various combinations depending on the needs of the patient, and depending on whether the virus has become resistant to a particular drug or class of drugs. Projects in the fields of medicines at the same time usually consist of three to four. Combination treatment is important, because only a class of medications alone can be the virus resistant to the drugs. Tablets are now available includes multiple drugs in a single pill makes it possible to treat many people with a single pill per day.Prior art, blood tests are usually performed to ensure that the virus is not more resistant to drugs. These stress tests can be repeated, if it, that seems is the medication does not work or stops working. Patients are taught the importance of your medications to take, as directed and tell us what side effects to watch.
Non-compliance with the medication is the most common cause of treatment failure and can result in that the virus will develop resistance to the drug. Because successful treatment is often several pills to take, it is important for patients to understand that this a regime of “all or nothing”. If the person can’t stand one of the pills, he or she should call ideally his personal physician before stopping the medication. Only one or two of the recommended medications is strongly discouraged, because this way the virus mutate and resistant. Better tell doctor HIV immediately about problems, so that a more well-tolerated combination can be prescribed.